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Sustainable livelihoods and food and nutrition security of Kenyan smallholder farm women / by Colleen G. Walton.

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Library Call Number Barcode Location Status Due Date
Robertson Library LE3.P8 2012 wal 37348007235542 SPEC-ARCH Available -
Subject: Food security > Research > Kenya.
Nutrition counseling > Kenya.
Food preferences > Kenya.
Women > Nutrition > Kenya.
Dairying > Research > Kenya.

Record details

  • ISBN: 9780494940846
  • Physical Description: xvi, 247 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
  • Publisher: Charlottetown, P.E.I. : University of Prince Edward Island, 2012.

Content descriptions

General Note: "Submitted to the Graduate Faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy"
Publication/order number: NR94084
Dissertation Note: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Prince Edward Island, 2012.
Bibliography, etc. Note: Includes bibliographical references (leaves 228-230).
Abstract: There is limited scientific information on relationships among smallholder dairy group membership duration, sustainable livelihoods, food and nutrition security in developing countries, and whether nutrition education of women dairy farmers enhances the nutritional benefits of being a dairy group member. The objectives of this thesis research were: 1) to identify associations among sustainable livelihood (SL) measures and dairy group membership duration; 2) to identify determinants of food and nutrition security; 3) to determine effects of a nutrition education intervention; and 4) to explore factors influencing food choices to help explain intervention results.
A cross sectional survey was used to collect data from smallholder farmers in Kenya. Wakulima Dairy (WDL) members (n=88), across four membership duration groups (1-3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10+ years), and non-members (n=23) were interviewed about SL assets (human capital e.g. education, household size; physical capital, e.g. livestock, consumer assets; natural capital e.g. land holdings; social capital e.g. women's group affiliation), and outcomes (e.g. income, food and nutrition security). Members and non-members were randomly assigned to nutrition education intervention and control groups and re-interviewed five months post-intervention to assess nutrition security and factors influencing food choices. SL assets and outcomes were described and associations among these measures and membership duration examined. Determinants of food and nutrition security were identified among SL measures. Pre- and post-intervention nutrition knowledge and diet quality indices were compared and examined for an interaction of membership and intervention status.
Dairy herd size, per-cow daily milk production, and HFS were intermediate for the one-to-three year WDL members, and higher among the greater-than-three year members. Enhanced well-being of the greater-than-three year members was suggested by improved household characteristics (e.g. accessible water, latrine, floor construction), and may result from dairy income, although identification of causal relationships is limited by the cross-sectional approach. Higher odds of HFS was associated with milk production however, average milk production was low (6.5 kg/cow/day). HFS was also significantly associated with women's group affiliation, greater-than-primary education, smaller household size, and consumer asset holdings.
WDL member women had higher milk and energy intakes, dietary diversity, and prevalence of overweight-status compared to non-member women. Longer membership duration was associated positively with milk-source nutrient intakes and percent energy from animal source foods (%ASF). Dietary diversity was positively associated with women's group membership and not with milk productivity or HFS. Diet quality measures, although better for WDL members, demonstrated micronutrient deficient diets. Nutrition education may help address inadequate micronutrients intakes for members and non-member women as demonstrated by a high proportion of intervention-group women that adopted strategies to increase iron and zinc bioavailability. Intervention results for dietary diversity and intakes of vitamins A and C were dependent on WDL membership status. Greater dietary diversity was found for intervention group women that were WDL members. In contrast, higher intakes of vitamin A and C were found for intervention group women that were not WDL members. Overall, WDL members had strengthened livelihood measures particularly after 3 years. The intermediate status of the 1-3 years of members may be significant in setting realistic measurable development project goals. Findings provide evidence of the need to improve diet quality.
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